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What we know and still don't know about LIV Golf, the circuit challenging the PGA Tour

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Mickelson excited for U.S. Open after LIV tournament (1:08)

Phil Mickelson discusses participating in the U.S. Open after playing in the LIV Golf Invitational. (1:08)

Another major champion, Brooks Koepka, is defecting from the PGA Tour to the new LIV Golf Invitational Series. Also, sources confirmed to ESPN, that Abraham Ancer, the 20th-ranked player in the world, will be leaving the PGA Tour and joining LIV Golf.

Koepka, who last week at the U.S. Open complained that the conversation about who was staying and who was going cast a "black cloud" over the year's third major championship, joins other big names and major winners -- Phil Mickelson, Dustin Johnson, Bryson DeChambeau and Patrick Reed, among others -- to bolt.

They might not be the last high-profile golfers to join the breakaway circuit being fronted by two-time Open Championship winner Greg Norman and financed by Saudi Arabia's Public Investment Fund. The first United States-based event will take place in Portland, Oregon, beginning June 30.

At the RBC Canadian Open two weeks ago, PGA Championship winner Justin Thomas called the defections a "bummer." "I don't know if annoyed or tired is the right word," Thomas said. "It's just one of those things. I've thought a lot about it and it's like, people are entitled to choose as they wish. I don't dislike DJ now. I don't think he's a bad dude. I'm not going to treat him any differently. It's like he's entitled to choose as he wishes.

"And I think that the day and age that we live in now, it's just so negative that you see it in everything. Sport, politics, whatever it is, it's like if you disagree with someone you just feel that you're entitled to hate them and talk bad about them and just bash their decision, when everybody's entitled to their own opinion, you know what I mean?"

PGA Tour commissioner Jay Monahan had warned players that they would face stiff penalties for competing in the rival circuit. And, in fact, the tour suspended the players who played in the first LIV event in London.

While stars such as Rory McIlroy and Patrick Cantlay have said they'll remain loyal to the PGA Tour, they admit they're interested to see what goes down over the next several weeks.

"I'm as curious as you are to see how the tournaments will go and what the presentation will be like, if it will be similar to golf tournaments that we're used to seeing on TV, or if it will be something totally different, and only time will tell," Cantlay said last week. "I'm interested to see what that product will be compared to what the product is right now that we are all used to."

Where do the PGA Tour and LIV Golf go from here? Here are a few questions that must still be answered:

Who's in?

Here are the players who have officially signed up so far, with Koepka, DeChambeau and Reed also reportedly on the way for the next one:

Phil Mickelson
Dustin Johnson
Shaun Norris
Oliver Bekker
Kevin Yuan
Justin Harding
Ratchanon Chantananuwat
Chase Koepka
Wade Ormsby
Matt Jones
Ryosuke Kinoshita
Blake Windred
Martin Kaymer
Pablo Larrazabal
JC Ritchie
Ian Snyman
Kevin Na
Sadom Kaewkanjana
Hideto Tanihara
Viraj Madappa
Sihwan Kim
Scott Vincent
Jinichiro Kozuma
Itthipat Buranatanyarat
Peter Uihlein
Richard Bland
Phachara Khongwatmai
Travis Smyth
Ian Poulter
Lee Westwood
Sam Horsfield
Laurie Canter
Louis Oosthuizen
Hennie Du Plessis
Charl Schwartzel
Branden Grace
Sergio Garcia
James Piot
David Puig
Jediah Morgan
Graeme McDowell
Bernd Wiesberger
Turk Pettit
Oliver Fisher
Talor Gooch
Hudson Swafford
Adrian Otaegui
Andy Ogletree

The schedule

Where: London
When: June 9-11

Where: Portland, Oregon
When: June 30-July 2

Where: Bedminster, New Jersey
When: July 29-31

Where: Boston
Sept. 2-4

Where: Chicago
Sept. 16-18

Where: Bangkok
When: Oct. 7-9

Where: Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
When: Oct. 14-16

Where: Miami
When: Oct. 27-30

When will the PGA Tour players face discipline?

The PGA Tour responded by suspending the 17 current or former members who defied Monahan by competing in London without releases. In a memo sent to players, Monahan didn't specify how long the suspensions would last or if players could be reinstated. The players are ineligible for tour events and the Presidents Cup, which is scheduled Sept. 19-25 at Quail Hollow Club in Charlotte, North Carolina.

"These players have made their choice for their own financial-based reasons," Monahan wrote in the memo. "But they can't demand the same PGA TOUR membership benefits, considerations, opportunities and platform as you. That expectation disrespects you, our fans and our partners. You have made a different choice, which is to abide by the Tournament Regulations you agreed to when you accomplished the dream of earning a PGA TOUR card and -- more importantly -- to compete as part of the preeminent organization in the world of professional golf."

The memo said players who compete in LIV events are ineligible to participate on the PGA Tour or any other tours it sanctions, including the Korn Ferry Tour, PGA Tour Champions, PGA Tour Canada and PGA Tour Latinoamerica. The 10 players who resigned their memberships, which includes Johnson, Lee Westwood and Oosthuizen, also can't compete in tour events on sponsor's exemptions.

Monahan wrote that any PGA Tour players who compete in future LIV events would face the same punishment.

"I am certain our fans and partners -- who are surely tired of all this talk of money, money and more money -- will continue to be entertained and compelled by the world-class competition you display each and every week, where there are true consequences for every shot you take and your rightful place in history whenever you reach that elusive winner's circle," Monahan wrote.

"You are the PGA TOUR, and this moment is about what we stand for: the PGA TOUR membership as a whole. It's about lifting up those who choose to not only benefit from the TOUR, but who also play an integral role in building it. I know you are with us, and vice versa. Our partners are with us, too. The fact that your former TOUR colleagues can't say the same should be telling."

Will players who compete on the LIV Golf circuit be eligible for majors?

The governing bodies that stage the four majors -- Augusta National Golf Club (Masters), USGA (U.S. Open), PGA of America (PGA Championship) and the R&A (The Open) -- have supported the PGA Tour and DP Tour (formerly the European Tour) in the past, but they don't seem ready to ban players who are competing in the LIV Golf circuit, at least not yet.

The USGA permitted players who are playing with LIV Golf and those who have committed to going forward to compete in last week's U.S. Open at The Country Club.

"Regarding players who may choose to play in London, we simply asked ourselves this question -- should a player who had earned his way into the 2022 U.S. Open, via our published field criteria, be pulled out of the field as a result of his decision to play in another event? And we ultimately decided that they should not," the USGA said.

The USGA said its decision should not be interpreted as favoring a new tour or a player's decision.

"Rather, it is simply a response to whether or not the USGA views playing in an alternative event, without the consent of their home tour, an offense that should disqualify them for the U.S. Open," the statement said.

At the Masters in April, Augusta National chairman Fred Ridley said the club supported the current ecosystem of golf. That being said, Masters champions are so revered by the club, it's difficult to imagine them being prohibited from competing in golf's first major of the year. Mickelson, Garcia, Johnson and Schwartzel have each won a green jacket.

"I would start by saying that our mission is always to act in the best interests of the game in whatever form that may take," Ridley said. "I think that golf's in a good place right now. There's more participation. Purses on the professional tours are the highest they have ever been.

"We have been pretty clear in our belief that the world tours have done a great job in promoting the game over the years. Beyond that, there's so much that we don't know about what might happen or could happen that I just don't think I could say much more beyond that."

Why are PGA Tour players leaving for LIV Golf?

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1:10

Johnson on PGA resignation: I chose what's best for my family

Dustin Johnson confirms his resignation from the PGA Tour to play in the Saudi-funded LIV Golf Invitational Series.

A lot of it has to do with money, but some players, particularly aging ones such as Garcia, McDowell, Poulter and Schwartzel, might be enticed by making as much (or more) money in fewer events on the LIV circuit.

Jones, from Australia, is a two-time winner on the PGA Tour. He has a runner-up finish and solo third this season. He finished tied for 26th at the Masters last year. He's a pretty good player, but not in the upper echelon of the PGA Tour. He has earned more than $17.3 million during his tour career.

Jones said playing in just seven regular-season events and a team championship finale would allow him to spend more time with his three young daughters. He still hopes to at least be eligible for the majors, if not PGA Tour events. He acknowledged receiving a signing bonus from LIV Golf.

"I want to be around as a dad," Jones said. "I mean, I've been out here for 15 years. I've missed a lot of what goes on in my kids' life. I was raised with a mom and dad that were always there for me. They were there at every sporting event, every schooling event, and that's something I'd like to try and do for my kids."

Swafford is another PGA Tour member who plans to play in London. He picked up his third career tour victory at the American Express in January and has earned more than $9.65 million. Swafford has two children.

"I've got two kids now," Swafford said. "Not traveling as much is appealing. There's a lot of things that went into the decision. I still want to play the PGA Tour. I definitely do. I love the tour."