Lowry carded a third round of 65 at the Regnum Carya Golf & Spa Resort to join Thailand's Kiradech Aphibarnrat in the lead on 14-under-par, with Rose, Padraig Harrington and halfway leader Nicolas Colsaerts two shots behind.
Colsaerts was four shots clear overnight and played the front nine in 32, but collapsed to a back nine of 41 to throw the tournament -- and possibly the Race to Dubai -- wide open.
Rose began the week just over a million points behind Tommy Fleetwood on the money list, but 985,000 points are on offer to the winner in Antalya and Fleetwood would win around 58,000 if he remains in a tie for 27th.
"Today was the best I've played all week, and maybe even better than last week," Rose, who overturned an eight-shot deficit to world No. 1 Dustin Johnson to win the WGC-HSBC Champions in Shanghai, said after a bogey-free 64.
"Since the FedExCup started I've been playing really, really solid golf and obviously the confidence always increases after a win. You start to be a little bit freer, so this week could be a by-product of that.
"I knew I had a low round in me and to find it today was very handy. If I was to play well in Dubai and win there, then whatever cheque I make tomorrow could be very valuable. Everything's to play for and every shot counts at this stage of the season."
Lowry's last win was also in a World Golf Championship event, but the 30-year-old has not tasted victory since the 2015 Bridgestone Invitational and has slipped from a high of 17th in the world to his current ranking of 93rd.
"It's been a while since I've won and I can't remember back that far," Lowry said after a bogey-free 65. But when I'm out there tomorrow hopefully something comes flooding back to me and I manage to get the job done.
"I'm looking forward to getting out there and being in the hunt. I haven't really been there for a while, so it will be good."I've dropped down the rankings over the last while so it will be nice to earn a few world ranking points, a few Race to Dubai points as well and make sure I'm playing in Dubai [the season-ending DP World Tour Championship] in a couple of weeks."
Harrington began the day nine shots off the lead but raced to the turn in 29 and shrugged off a bogey on the par-five 15th to eventually sign for a 64.
"I did say to my caddie at one stage that Nicolas was 16 [under-par] and every time we looked up he was going further forward," the three-time major winner said. "I said it would be a great tournament if Nicolas wasn't in it' and thankfully he's decided to come back to the field.
"The funny thing is he's still got a great chance of winning the tournament from where he is, but certainly there's a lot more people who are going to have restless nights because Nicolas has come back."