Men's soccer clubs around Europe spent an incredible amount of money to sign players in the summer transfer window, breaking multiple records.
According to Deloitte, Premier League clubs' gross spend of £2.36 billion was almost £440 million higher than the previous record (£1.92bn) set last summer, while (with the exception of Spain's LaLiga) gross transfer spend increased in all of Europe's top leagues as well. Even January 2023 saw Premier League clubs spend a record £815m -- 90% higher than the previous record of £430m in 2018.
Things have been significantly slower this time around, but here are grades for all the major confirmed summer transfers in the men's game, with each day's moves listed in order of highest fee.
All fees are reported unless confirmed with an asterisk (*).
Aston Villa: B+
Rogers joined Middlesbrough last summer from Manchester City for around £1m, so the Championship club have made a decent profit and also stand to bag another £7m in possible add-ons. Boro were loathe to let the winger leave this month but decided to cash in.
The England under-20 international is highly rated, can play across the forward line and will provide competition for Moussa Diaby and Leon Bailey. It's a low fee for a young English player, so Villa have done well and can be pleased with the deal.
Granada are fighting against relegation, so why would they agree to let one of their best players leave midway through the season? When announcing that a €15m deal had been agreed to move in the summer, Zaragoza had already stated that he wanted to stay. But then things changed. Granada at least signed a replacement in Man United's Facundo Pellistri.
Bayern had some injuries and reportedly paid a €5m loan fee to get the winger early. They did very well to get the deal done, having also looked at some other options, but Zaragoza was clearly the one they wanted.
It's clear that Chelsea have options up front, but not that many. Letting Broja leave without a replacement could see them struggle if another player gets injured. They've not done well in the goal-scoring department this season and a £4m loan fee doesn't seem a good enough reason to leave themselves short.
Signing a player who has scored 20 goals in 72 games during two previous seasons on loan should work out. He's young and hungry to show that he is worthy of playing in the Premier League and if he stays free of injury then Fulham could benefit.
Nottingham Forest: B+
Once considered one of the best young midfielders in Europe, the USMNT international has dropped out of favour at Dortmund and a move is best for both parties. Usually, the German club would be getting a stellar transfer fee for one of their stars, but it shows how far he has fallen as they only want €15m for a permanent deal. The club did, however, extend his contract until 2026 before letting him leave on loan.
Forest need a spark if they are to avoid a relegation battle this season, with Reyna the type of player who could bring it. But that will rely on him rediscovering his form and staying clear of the injuries that have hampered him so far in his career.
Boey moved to Galatasaray in 2021 for around €5m from Rennes, so the Turkish club have made a decent profit on his transfer inside three years. A strong and aggressive defender, the Frenchman will be missed at the club but it's not surprising he chose to move to Bayern.
The German champions went for Newcastle veteran Kieran Trippier first, but ended up paying more to sign the 23-year-old Boey. A €30m fee, plus €5m in add-ons, is a hefty amount for a player whose career has really only sprung to life in the last couple of years.
Atletico Madrid: A-
One of the most highly rated young midfielders in Europe, Vermeeren has had a host of top clubs interested in signing him. It's somewhat surprising that Antwerp chose to let him go in January, rather than hold out for more money over the summer, given his contract expired in 2026.
Atletico have done brilliantly to land a real talent ahead of any of their rivals. The 18-year-old should thrive in LaLiga and if he gets enough game time then he will surely impress.
Man City: C+
West Ham: A
City spent around £45m to sign Phillips from Leeds United in 2022 but it hasn't worked out. The England international hasn't played and Pep Guardiola seemed genuinely sad he couldn't offer him more chances. They will want a permanent deal in the summer.
A great deal for West Ham, who have landed a replacement for Declan Rice, who will be keen to showcase his skills ahead of Euro 2024. A no-risk loan deal that can only have positive implications.
Moscardo broke into the Corinthians first team only six months ago so it's a decent transfer fee for his services, given his lack of exposure. The 18-year-old stepped into central midfield during a tricky time for the club and has shown experience beyond his years. They will certainly feel his absence.
A holding midfielder in the style of Arsenal's Declan Rice, Moscardo should settle well at the club as there are a number of Brazilians in Paris already. PSG have loaned him back for the rest of the season but they have needed a player in this position for a while and it will be interesting to see how one of the top young prospects in the game develops.
River Plate: C
Manchester City: B+
The 18-year-old attacker is highly rated and will remain at River Plate until next January before moving to City. Still, for one who has gathered quite so much attention, the transfer fee feels on the low side.
Echeverri has signed a deal until June 2028 and will likely move on loan to one of City's many feeder clubs (possibly Girona) before he ever gets near the City first team. But if he can have anywhere near the impact of Julian Alvarez then it will be a superb deal.
Boca Juniors: C-
One of the most exciting prospects in all of South America, Barco left Boca for what seems a relatively cheap fee due to a release clause of $10m in his contract. The Argentine giants will be fuming that they couldn't get him to sign new terms before moving him on.
Brighton have done it again. The livewire 19-year-old left-back is versatile and seems a perfect fit for Roberto De Zerbi's style as he will be given license to roam forward from deeper areas and showcase his brilliant dribbling. Manchester City, Barcelona and Real Madrid all showed interest in Barco before, so Brighton did brilliantly to persuade the youngster that he would develop better with them.
Al Ettifaq: D-
Henderson, 33, made waves when he moved to Saudi Arabia and will now question whether it was worth it. He's played 19 times and has reportedly yet to be paid any of his £350,000-a-week salary. It's also a bad look for the Saudi league that he's left inside six months and has had his contract terminated.
Famed for their youth system, Ajax need a bit of experience to help the youngsters' development. He can still offer something and the Eredivisie could be a good place for him to reignite his career.
Man United: C+
After an impressive performance vs. Burnley earlier this season, it seemed like Hannibal might get his chance. But he's been sent on loan until the end of the season and Sevilla have an option of a permanent deal set at €16m plus €4m in add-ons. He could be yet another young prospect who couldn't make it at Old Trafford.
Sevilla can offer him more regular minutes and he turned down Tunisia's call-up to the Africa Cup of Nations this month to sort out his club future. He might prefer LaLiga's style of play but he will need to impress quickly to earn a future contract.
DAVID DATRO FOFANA
Chelsea recalled him after he spent the first half of the season on loan at Union Berlin in Germany, where he made 17 appearances and scored in the Champions League group stage against Napoli. It's probably better for him to gain Premier League experience, but the Blues have yet to see much from him.
Burnley need something if they're going to avoid relegation. There's not been anything to suggest Fofana will light up the Premier League but it's worth a low-risk effort.
Ben Chilwell, Marc Cucurella and Levi Colwill are all ahead of Maatsen in the left-back pecking order at Chelsea, so it's clear he has no future at the club and a move seems best for all concerned. However, the Blues lose marks for only sending him on loan when they really wanted a permanent deal after a £31m move to Burnley fell through last summer.
Dortmund needed a left-back after the exit of Raphaël Guerreiro to Bayern last summer and should be able to offer Maatsen a chance. He is still only 21 and could thrive at the club.
Julien Laurens explains why he likes Kalvin Phillips' loan move to West Ham from Man City.
Man United: D-
The very fact Man United are even having to send Sancho out on loan means they will get a low grade. Whatever has gone on with manager Erik ten Hag, surely they could have found a way to reintegrate him back into the squad? A loan move is a solution, but it's a sad one for a player of such potential and United will continue to pay around half his £300,000-a-week salary.
Dortmund were able to bank €85m for Sancho's transfer in 2021 and now they get him back on loan. The 23-year-old winger should be able to get back to his old self in familiar surroundings and the move is relatively low risk for his former club.
RB Leipzig: C+
Leipzig spent a cool €30m to re-sign Werner in 2022 and his two goals in 14 games this season are a world apart from his first spell when he bagged 95 in 159. The club still made a decent profit after moving him on to Chelsea for €50m in 2020, so it's not all bad. But they wouldn't have expected him to struggle enough for a loan spell.
Tottenham need a backup striker, but it's tough to see why they were impressed by they saw from his time at Chelsea (23 goals in 89 games). A loan deal means it's low risk, his pace could be useful for the Ange Postecoglou system and it's a good move a player who needs game time ahead of Euro 2024 if he wants to get into the Germany squad. But it feels very much like a stop-gap solution, and those don't usually work out.
Man City: C-
Colorado Rapids: A
Steffen signed for City for $7m from Columbus Crew in 2019 and made only 21 appearances in between loan spells at Fortuna Dusseldorf and Middlesbrough. The USMNT international could never unseat Ederson as No. 1 and a move is best for him, given he is still only 28.
The Rapids have landed a great deal. Steffen was left out of the U.S. squad for the 2022 World Cup in Qatar by coach Gregg Berhalter and a move to MLS, where he will be playing regularly, should put him back into the national team conversation.
Athletico Paranaense: A-
The 18-year-old scored 28 goals in 80 appearances during his brief time in the first team -- with 21 of those goals coming in 44 matches in 2023 before an injury limited his involvement. Athletico couldn't keep hold of him once a big European team came in and they landed a very decent fee for his services.
Barca have gambled by parting with so much money given their financial situation, but they clearly see something of Luis Suarez in the young Brazilian forward. It's hard to grade his transfer given he's only 18, but if he reaches his potential then Barca will consider this a bargain.
Benfica know how to do a deal. Ramos came through the youth ranks so the €65m is all profit and they could net another €15m in performance-related add-ons. Yes they have missed his 46 goals in 106 games, but Santos' Marcos Leonardo looks like he could be a decent replacement.
Three goals and one assist from 18 games isn't stellar form, but PSG are clearly preparing for the possible exit of Kylian Mbappe and the 22-year-old Portugal international has bags of potential. He will need to start hitting the net with more regularity though, if the move isn't to be deemed a flop.
Sao Paulo: A
The Brazil under-20 international has been linked with a host of clubs, so Sao Paulo were always going to struggle to keep him. A fee of €20m seems decent, especially considering he's a centre-back.
PSG needed some depth in defence and he's got plenty of potential, while he can learn a lot from Marquinhos, who was key in his decision to move to Paris.
DONNY VAN DE BEEK
Man United: C-
Eintracht Frankfurt: B+
Another example of a big United transfer gone wrong. Van de Beek signed for €45m from Ajax in 2020 and seemed like he could be a perfect fit for Ten Hag, having played under him before. But it didn't work out.
Frankfurt have done a good deal here and will pay United a minimal loan fee and cover the majority of Van de Beek's wages. An option to sign him permanently sits at €11m, which is affordable, and he is the type of player who could impress in the Bundesliga if he gets his confidence back.
Clearly not a part of Ange Postecoglou's plans, Lloris has been out of the picture for six months despite being club captain last season. With a contract until the summer, Spurs did the decent thing to let the 37-year-old go for nothing midseason, but it's a sad end to his 11-year career in north London.
LAFC won't get too many years out of Lloris but France's most-capped player (with 145 appearances) can still offer something and his experience will be of great use.