Netherlands' Manchester City defender Nathan Ake was forced off early in the game with a muscle injury while Spain's Jose Gaya also came off in the first half, after a clash of heads with Hans Hateboer.
Canales struck his first goal for Spain to open the scoring in the 19th minute, latching on to a pass from Alvaro Morata and firing low into the net.
Luis Enrique's side had dominated the first half but the Netherlands bossed the second and missed two clear chances to win the match.
"We had some good spells but we were a bit unorganised in the second half and they piled lots of players forward and we struggled to cope with that," said Luis Enrique.
"Overall I got good sensations from the game."
Simon thwarted captain Memphis Depay from close range with a low dive but the forward should really have put the chance away, while Luuk de Jong spurned a late foray into the area, losing control of the ball and allowing Spain's defenders to get back.
"Our plan was to have the players fresh for our two competitive games and I'm more than satisfied with what I saw," Luis Enrique added.
"We don't have many games but today allowed me to see that all our players can compete when called upon."