For the fourth-straight World Cup qualifying campaign, the Socceroos have been pitted against Asian powerhouse Japan.
It comes after Japan and Australia faced each other in the same stage of qualifying on the road to the 2010, 2014 and 2018 World Cups.
Australia were also pitted with Saudi Arabia in the 2018 qualifiers, finishing third behind Japan and the Middle East nation to send them into an arduous playoff route to Russia.
The top two teams from each group will qualify for Qatar 2022 with the third-placed teams to advance to a playoff.
The winner of that match then takes on a nation from a different confederation for a two-legged playoff with the winner qualifying for the World Cup.
After claiming a perfect eight wins from eight matches in the second phase of qualifying, Socceroos coach Graham Arnold was bullish about his team's prospects.
"What we learnt in the second phase where we had to play seven out of eight games away from home, and we won all eight games, has given the players a lot of belief and confidence when they play away from home," Arnold said.
"We've shown in that second phase a lot of resilience and, as I said, a lot of belief so wherever we play we expect to win every game."
Iran, who Australia are still yet to play since the two nations' infamous World Cup play-off in 1997, have been drawn in Group A along with South Korea, the United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Syria and Lebanon.
All-up the Socceroos have won seven of 25 matches against Japan but last tasted victory over their rivals in 2010.
Japan have won four of the past seven encounters since then.
Matches in the third stage of qualifying are scheduled to be played in September, October, November, January, February and March but actual dates and venues are yet to be confirmed.
Depending on travel restrictions due to the COVID pandemic, matches may be played in a tournament-style hub at a centralised venue such as they were for the final matches of the second phase of qualifying last month.
ASIAN WORLD CUP QUALIFYING THIRD PHASE GROUPS
Group A: Iran, South Korea, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon
Group B: Japan, Australia, Saudi Arabia, China, Oman, Vietnam