The match, known as the Partita del Cuore, was held to raise money for cancer research and included two teams packed with star names and famous faces.
Vettel, Leclerc, F2 driver Mick Schumacher and Alfa Romeo driver Antonio Giovinazzi were all playing on Ronaldo's team, Campioni per la Ricerca, which won 3-2 against rivals Nazionale Italiana Cantanti, captained by Gianluigi Buffon.
Pavel Nedved, Francesco Totti and Andrea Pirlo also made appearances on Ronaldo's team alongside John Elkann, the chairman and CEO of Exor -- the company that has controlling stakes in both Ferrari and Juventus.
According to Italian reports, Vettel hit the crossbar before Giovinazzi came on as a substitute to score one of the goals for Campioni per la Ricerca. Ronaldo put away the winning goal to ensure his team secured victory at the end of the night.
Ronaldo was among the celebrities who made an appearance at the Monaco Grand Prix last weekend, posing for photos in the Ferrari garage and with five-time world champion Lewis Hamilton.