League v Union, the Grand Slam, and leading scorers in the International Championship
March 30, 2009
Bath's Ian Sanders is tackled by Wigan's Va'aiga Tuigamala and Martin Hall during the Union v League clash at Twickenham in 1996 © Getty Images
Shaun Edwards Gareth Edwards Andy Farrell Riki Flutey Doug Howlett Neil Jenkins Stephen Jones Cyril Lowe Mils Muliaina Brian O'Driscoll Ronan O'Gara Chris Paterson Henry Paul Scott Quinnell Caleb Ralph Jason Robinson Joe Roff Sitiveni Sivivatu Ian Smith Stefan Terblanche Inga Tuigamala Rory Underwood Joeli Vidiri Jonny Wilkinson
Welcome to the latest edition of Ask John where renowned rugby historian John Griffiths will answer any rugby-related query you have!
So, if there's something you've always wanted to know about the game we love but didn't know who to ask, or you think you can stump our expert - then get involved by sending us a question.
In his latest lesson for us all, John reveals the history of Union v League clashes, the origins of the term 'Grand Slam' and the leading scorers in the International Championship.
Q. Has there ever been a challenge match where a union side played a league side in a match of rugby league or a league side played a union side in rugby union? John, United States
A. Bath and Wigan met in cross-code challenges in 1996 and the only previous meeting in Rugby's history between teams of Union and League players took place in April 1944 at Bradford's Odsal Stadium.
In November 1939, shortly after the outbreak of the war, the Rugby Football Union had lifted the strict rules barring League players from taking part in Union matches. As a result, many League stars in the services appeared in wartime charity games. The match at Odsal was arranged by Northern Command, attracted 18,000 spectators and raised £1,350.
The League fifteen, containing several pre-war Union international players who had gone North, won by three converted tries to two - 15-10 under the rugby union scoring values of the time. Three of the Union fifteen had toured South Africa with the 1938 Lions, among them Haydn Tanner, the Welsh scrum-half, who turned out as a centre. The Sunday Times described it as a "spectacular game, the result of which was definitely flattering to the League, who, however, won through superior pace in the backs."
April 29, 1944, Odsal Stadium, Bradford
Rugby League: E Ward; R L Francis, J Lawrenson, J Stott, A Edwards; S Brogden, H Royal; D R Prosser, L White, C Brereton, D Murphy, E V Watkins, I Owens, W G Chapman, T Foster
Scorers: Tries: Owens, Lawrenson, Brogden Conversions: Ward (3)
Rugby Union: F Trott; G Hollis, T Sullivan, H Tanner, E F Simpson; T Gray, E J Parsons; G T Dancer, R J Longland, R E Prescott, P N Walker, D Phillips, G D Shaw, J A Waters, R H G Weighill
Scorers: Tries: Phillips, Gray Conversions: Parsons, Gray
After rugby went open in the summer of 1995, the leading English clubs in the league and union codes, Wigan RLFC and Bath RUFC, staged a two-match cross-code challenge series. Wigan won the League match 82-6 at Maine Road on May 8, 1996, after which John Hall, Bath's director of rugby, said: "We turned up - and enjoyed." Wigan's captain that evening was Shaun Edwards, now in the Union game on the coaching teams for Wasps and Wales.
Bath squared the series by taking the Union match at Twickenham 44-19 later the same month. Among those who turned out for Wigan at Twickenham were Jason Robinson, Henry Paul and Andy Farrell who all went on to win England Union caps as threequarters. Former Union Test players Scott Quinnell and Vaiga Tuigamala were also in the Wigan ranks.
In between the challenge matches Wigan had been a guest side at the Middlesex Sevens at Twickenham, beating Wasps 38-15 in the tournament final and demonstrating the superior fitness and athleticism of seasoned professionals.
Q. Why are South African players not considered as foreign as far as the Guinness Premiership is concerned?Colin Hiscocks, England
A. South African players enjoy European Community working rights. Unlike Australians, New Zealanders Argentineans, Canadians or Americans, they qualify under the so-called Kolpak agreement which allows them to play in Britain (and therefore in the Guinness Premiership) because their home country has a trading relationship with the European Community. Kolpak players are not obliged to surrender their citizenship so they remain eligible to play for their home country at Test level.
A foreign player is defined as one who has no European working rights. The Premiership's current rules permit a maximum of one foreign player on the pitch at any one time, though there is a relaxation (to a maximum of three) if matches take place during a recognised international weekend.
Other countries whose players fall under the Kolpak agreement include Tonga, Fiji and Samoa.
Q. When was the term "Grand Slam" first used in a rugby context? Anon
A. Like the expressions "Triple Crown", "Wooden Spoon" and "International Championship" which were coined in the 1890s, the term "Grand Slam" was an invention of the British press.
It is, however, a relevantly recent part of the rugby lexicon. When Ireland beat Wales 6-3 in Belfast to make their only previous clean sweep in 1948, the best the press could come up with to describe their feat was: "not only did they win the Triple Crown for the third time after a lapse of 49 years, but for the first time they have beaten all four other countries in the international championship." (John P Jordan in the Daily Telegraph - March 15, 1948). And when Wales won their four Five Nations matches in 1950 and 1952 there were several references to their invincibility and achievement of winning all four matches, but none of the Grand Slam.
The Times correspondent, Uel Titley, was the first to use the expression "Grand Slam" in a rugby context in his match preview for England's game against Scotland on March 16 in 1957. England beat Scotland 16-3 to complete a winning Five Nations season and the phrase was used again by Titley in the match report on the Monday, when he told Times readers of England's "achievement of the grand slam for the first time since 1927-28." His press-box colleague Michael Melford of the Daily Telegraph wrote of "The grand slam of four victories" on the same day and a Telegraph sub-editor, impressed by the concision of the phrase, incorporated it into the banner headline "Handsome Victory Earns England Grand Slam" that accompanied Melford's report.
The next Grand Slam match wasn't until 1965, but by then the expression was part of international rugby's everyday language. Wales went to Paris where they were denied the prize by France. Ken Jones's match report for the Sunday Express was headed: "French fury wrecks grand slam dreams."
Q. Who are the leading points and try scorers in the history of the Five/Six Nations? Anon
A. The leading points scorer and leading try scorer in this season's Six Nations were Ronan O'Gara (56 points) and Brian O'Driscoll (who shared top try billing with England's Riki Flutey on four each). The two Irishmen feature prominently among the Championship's five all-time leading scorers in each category.
Leading Points Scorers in the International Championship (1883-2009)
Leading Try Scorers in the International Championship (1883-2009)
Q. Am I right in thinking that a scrum cannot "push" forward until the ball is placed in the scrum? If so can you explain to me why teams are constantly getting away with this? Wales did it constantly against France to a point where the ball was placed into the second channel behind the hooker. Surely the point of a scrum is a 50/50 ball for both teams to be able to "strike." If this is allowed then why don't all teams do it? Peter Manning, UK
A. The law relating to the scrummage is straightforward. The ball must be put in along the middle line of the scrum and the scrum must remain stationary until the ball leaves the scrum-half's hands. A difficulty for referees, however, is that many packs have become adept at stepping backwards at the put-in, thereby giving the impression that the opposition has prematurely shoved them away from the mark.
The point of a scrummage is to re-start the game after an infringement, not to give teams a 50/50 chance of securing possession. It draws the two packs to a single position and creates space elsewhere for the backs to create attacks. The put-in is awarded to the side that was not responsible for the infringement and it makes sense that they should be almost guaranteed possession - but within the laws referred to above.
Q. Sitiveni Sivivatu scored four tries for the Chiefs against the Blues in Hamilton a couple of weekends ago. What is the record for most tries in a Super 12/14 match? Anon
A. Sitiveni Sivivatu equalled the Super 12/14 record in that match. Since the Super tournament became professional in 1996, seven other players have crossed for four tries in a match:
Communication error please reload the page.
After another disastrous night out, the Reds fell to a one-point loss to the Lions, but Reds coach Richard Graham still believes the Reds have a chance to make the finals
England manager Roy Hodgson confirmed that Arsenal striker Danny Welbeck will miss Tuesday's international friendly against Italy with injury, while Liverpool winger Raheem Sterling will also be excused from the game in Turin
Andy Murray made a solid start in his quest for a third Miami Open title as he dispatched Donald Young to reach the third round in Florida
Harry Kane declared his debut international goal as the greatest moment of his career as he scored just 80 seconds after coming off the bench during England's 4-0 victory against Lithuania
Northampton star George North was knocked unconscious after scoring two tries during the Saints' 52-30 Aviva Premiership victory over London Wasps on Friday
Who has driven in the most GPs before taking pole position?
Mudslinging and an agreement on something that will never happen, it's all in a day's work for a Formula One boss, as Maurice Hamilton explains...
Fallout continues from the NSW-Brumbies derby, with one Tahs forward - not Potgieter - surprised by other unsavoury comments during the game, Greg Growden reports
Greg Growden previews Super Rugby round 7. We've also got key stats, team news and all the line-ups to inform your ESPN Footytips Super Rugby picks
Will Mercedes dominate again? Can anybody catch up with the help of a rainstorm? And will the Red Bull/Renault relationship tear itself apart? All those questions and more will be answered at this weekend's Malaysian Grand Prix
Kevin De Bruyne would consider a move back to Chelsea despite barely featuring in his time at Stamford Bridge, sources told ESPN
Liverpool striker Daniel Sturridge fears an extended spell out of action after tearing a hip muscle, England manager Roy Hodgson has revealed
Manchester United are determined to keep Angel Di Maria at Old Trafford, club sources have told ESPN, despite recent uncertainty over his future
Barcelona forward Luis Suarez has said he was treated "worse than if I were a hooligan" when FIFA banned him for biting Italy defender Giorgio Chiellini at the World Cup
Andy Murray has expressed fears that his game will regress without full-time coaching in a candid exchange with a fellow Twitter user as he prepares to add former world No.4 Jonas Bjorkman to his coaching team
Everton defender Phil Jagielka is to have surgery on a badly gashed ankle, manager David Moyes has confirmed
Unbeaten heavyweight Dillian Whyte, 28, (14-0, 11 KOs) tells ESPN where his rivalry with Anthony Joshua stems from and outlines the plan for his career this year after returning from a doping ban in November
Who has driven in the most GPs before taking pole position?
Some of the best fighters to ever glove up have plied their trade in the Octagon - now ESPN list the 10 best who have fought under the UFC banner
Who was the first Briton to win the British Grand Prix?