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Autumn internationals: Team by team injury list

Billy Vunipola will miss England's autumn programme and is a doubt for the Six Nations. Henry Browne/Getty Images

With the November internationals nearing, the biggest concern for the major nations is the growing size of their injury lists -- will key players be fit for the end-of-year tours?

ESPN rounds up the Test stars who will be watching on from the treatment room this autumn.

England

Billy Vunipola (knee): Vunipola was ruled out for four months after picking up a knee injury in Saracens victory over Sale in the Aviva Premiership, having missed the British & Irish Lions tour of New Zealand due to a shoulder injury. The No. 8 is in a race against time to be fit for the Six Nations.

Jack Nowell (cheekbone): Nowell suffered "a couple of fractures around the top of his cheek and his eye socket" in Exeter's bonus-point win over Newcastle Oct. 7 and now faces a struggle to be fit for the autumn internationals.

Ben Te'o (ankle): After an impressive British & Irish Lions tour, Te'o looked set to set the autumn internationals alight but an ankle injury in Worcester's win over Brive put a spanner in the works.

Manu Tuilagi (knee): Despite being sent home from an England camp, he remained in Eddie Jones' plans before an ankle injury ruled him out for 12 weeks.

Fixtures

Sat. Nov. 11 vs. Argentina, London 3 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 18 vs. Australia, London 3 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 25 vs. Samoa, London 3 p.m.

Ireland

Rob Kearney (hamstring): The fullback has been plagued by hamstring problems over the last two seasons, and the 31-year-old is enduring another spell on the sidelines having limped off at half-time of Leinster's win over Cardiff Blues last month.

Jamie Heaslip (lower back): Heaslip was expected to return to action by the end of last season, but has not been seen on the pitch since Ireland's Six Nations clash with Wales in March.

Garry Ringrose (shoulder): The Ireland centre underwent surgery on his shoulder despite playing a full part in his country's summer programme against the U.S. and Japan. Is expected to return at the end of the year.

Sean O'Brien (calf injury): The Lions flanker was only expected to miss Leinster's PRO14 clash with Munster, but also sat out his side's Champions Cup opener last weekend and is a doubt for the clash against Glasgow.

Fixtures

Sat. Nov. 11 vs. South Africa, Dublin 5.30 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 18 vs. Fiji, Dublin 5.30 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 25 vs. Argentina Dublin, 5.30 p.m.

Wales

Sam Warburton (neck surgery): The British & Irish Lions captain was sidelined for an expected four months after exacerbating a long-standing neck injury in training for the Cardiff Blues.

George North (sprain): North is set to miss the bulk of the autumn internationals after suffering a sprain to his posterior cruciate ligament in their defeat to Saracens in the Champions Cup.

Rob Evans (concussion): Evans hasn't passed the return-to-play protocols after suffering a knock against Connacht Sept. 29.

Dan Baker (knee): - Baker needed oxegyn on the field after suffering what Ospreys coach Steve Tandy described as "a bad one" against Clermont Auvergne in the Champions Cup.

Fixtures

Sat. Nov. 11 vs. vs. Australia, Cardiff 5.15 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 18 vs. Georgia, Cardiff 2.30 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 25 vs. New Zealand, Cardiff 5.15 p.m.

Sat. Dec. 2 vs. South Africa, Cardiff 5.30 p.m.

Scotland

Greig Laidlaw (broken leg): A horrid year of injuries continues for Laidlaw. After damaging ankle ligaments in the Six Nations against France, he sustained a broken leg in Clermont's Champions Cup victory over Ospreys. The injury will however provide Townsend with the opportunity to give game time to those behind their first choice scrum-half.

John Barclay (concussion): The continued problems with concussion which has seen the likes of Dane Coles and Ben Smith miss large amounts of games now encompasses Barclay. The Scotland captain was replaced 26 minutes into Scarlets' PRO14 victory over Edinburgh Sept. 23 and was set to see a leading neurologist with his recovery stalling.

Fixtures

Sat. Nov. 11 vs. v Samoa, Edinburgh 2.30 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 18 vs. New Zealand, Edinburgh 5.15 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 25 vs. Australia, Edinburgh 2.30 p.m.

South Africa

Duane Vermeulen (groin): Vermeulen underwent a groin operation and is in the final phase of his rehabilitation. The No. 8 is unlikely to prove his fitness before they face Ireland in Dublin.

Frans Malherbe (neck injury): Malherbe has been out of action since June with a neck injury. A neurosurgeon in Port Elizabeth suggested an extended period of rest for the player who is due to resume training early next year.

Jaco Kriel (shoulder): Kriel needed a shoulder operation and is set for a six-month layoff. The problem was diagnosed as a tear of the labrum in the Springboks' drawn Rugby Championship Test against Australia in Perth.

Coenie Oosthuizen (broken arm): Oosthuizen saw a brilliant season ended prematurely by a broken arm during the 23-23 draw against Australia. Oosthuizen was hauled ashore with 10 minutes remaining but came back on with four minutes left when his replacement Trevor Nyakane went off with a cut.

Ruan Combrinck (shoulder): Combrinck injured his shoulder while playing for Japanese side Kintetsu Liners at the start of October and returned to South Africa for surgery. It was a blow to Combrinck after Coetzee had said he needed to gain more game time before being recalled to the Springboks.

Fixtures

Sat. Nov. 11 vs. Ireland, Dublin 5.30 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 18 vs. France, Paris 7.45 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 25 vs. Italy, Padova 2 p.m.

Sat. Dec. 2 vs. Wales, Cardiff 5.30 p.m.

New Zealand

Beauden Barrett (head): The problems which Dane Coles and Ben Smith have endured with head injuries could provide a cautiounary tale for Barrett and the New Zealand backroom team. He will miss the Bledisloe Cup against Australia having had trouble with headaches and dizziness after the All Blacks' win over South Africa.

Nehe Milner-Skudder (shoulder): The Hurricanes utility back has been through a disastrous 24 months with a season-long shoulder injury in 2016, a foot fracture in March and most recently a shoulder injury that saw him sidelined for between six and seven months.

Joe Moody (dislocated shoulder): Moody did the damage to his shoulder during New Zealand's win over Argentina in New Plymouth Sept. 9 and his absence means there is an opportunity in the All Blacks team to displace the outstanding loosehead prop.

Owen Franks (Achilles tendon): Franks went under the knife Sept. 8 having been withdrawn during the victory over the Wallabies Aug. 19. The Achilles tendon was a chronic problem for Franks, who played through it during the summer and had limited minutes for Crusaders.

Fixtures

Sat. Nov. 4 vs. Barbarians, London 3 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 11 vs. France 7:45pm, Paris 7.45 p.m.

Tues. Nov. 14 vs. France XV, Lyon 6.30 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 18 vs. Scotland, Edinburgh 5.15 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 25 vs. Wales, Cardiff 5.15 p.m.

Australia

Izack Rodda (shoulder): The 21-year-old lock, who made his debut against the All Blacks during the recent Rugby Championship, will miss the November Tests after undergoing surgery to fix an existing problem.

Fixtures

Sat. Nov. 4 vs. Japan, Yokohama 5.40 a.m.

Sat. Nov. 11 vs. Wales, Cardiff 5.15 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 18 vs. England, London 3 p.m.

Sat. Nov. 25 vs. Scotland, Edinburgh 2.30 p.m.

Sat. Dec. 2 vs. South Africa, Cardiff 5.30 p.m.