A second-round draft pick out of Florida State in 2015, Goldman has started 32 of his 36 games played and has 8½ sacks and 15 quarterback hurries.
The Bears announced the move Friday.
General manager Ryan Pace called the deal a "key extension for the future of the Bears." He said Goldman is an "anchor" for the defense and "has put the work in every day to earn this opportunity."
The Bears open Sunday at Green Bay in coach Matt Nagy's first game.
Chicago is expecting more after four straight last-place finishes in the NFC North, thanks to some major moves in the offseason. The Bears signed former Jacksonville Jaguars Pro Bowl wide receiver Allen Robinson and boosted their defense last weekend by acquiring two-time All-Pro Khalil Mack from the Oakland Raiders.