The Jayhawks will travel to Lexington for just the third time since 2005.
The schedule will feature six first-time Challenge matchups: Alabama at Baylor, Iowa State at Ole Miss, Kansas State at Texas A&M, Vanderbilt at Oklahoma, Florida at TCU and West Virginia at Tennessee.
Thirteen of the 20 teams participating competed in last season's NCAA tournament, including Final Four representative Kansas.
The Jayhawks, who were ranked third in the preseason coaches' poll last year and are expected to be among the top three again, are still waiting on the NBA draft decision of 7-footer Udoka Azubuike. In the meantime, they added five-star freshmen Devon Dotson and Quentin Grimes as well as transfer Charlie Moore, who averaged 12.2 points per game at Cal in 2016-17.
The Big 12 has won the Challenge in three of its five previous installments, with one loss and one tie.